Irregular Modern Greek Verbs

This page is part of a more general, learner-oriented page on Greek verbs (modern and ancient), which in turn is part of the author’s pages on the grammar of the Greek language.

As mentioned in the general information on Greek verbs, each Greek verb comes in two flavors, which we called vanilla and strawberry, which become three if we count the passive chocolate as a separate flavor. (Please visit the previous link and read the beginning of that page to see the justification for this choice of words.) In a brief introductory paragraph on irregular verbs we saw that there are three verbs (βλέπω = I see, λέω = I say, and τρώω = I eat) that have totally unrelated vanilla and strawberry flavors (είδα = I saw, είπα = I said, and έφαγα = I ate). All other irregular verbs have flavors of vanilla and strawberry (and chocolate in the passive voice) that are more-or-less related to each other (they have at least some common consonants) but they are irregular because they cannot be pigeonholed into one of the regular patterns (see the page on regular Greek verbs for a list of those patterns).

The verbs listed in this page are by no means all of the irregular verbs in Greek. However, they are taken from the list of the 1000 most common Greek words (for information on how this list was obtained, see this footnote), so in a way they are the irregular Greek verbs a learner would want to look at for most practical purposes.

Verbs in their main tables are listed in this page by frequency of occurrence in the language, in reverse order (high frequencies first). A list (“Table of Contents”) is given immediately below, for ease of locating a given verb alphabetically.

Finally note that a characteristic of Greek verbs is that often prepositions can be prepended to a base verb, changing completely its meaning. Prepositional forms are listed under the tables of the main verb entry, in a note; but because they are too many, they have been omitted from the Table of Contents, below; so it is recommended that the reader use the search function of their browser to locate verbs in this page. Often the compound prepositional verb is more common than its base form; in that case, the prepositional form is shown as a main entry, and the base together with all other prepositional verbs follow in a note.

Table of Contents  
be   είμαι
be about, concern, regard   αφορώ
belong   ανήκω
bring, fetch   φέρνω / φέρω
die   πεθαίνω
do, make   κάνω
drink   πίνω
eat   τρώω / τρώγω
enter   μπαίνω
exit, go out, get out   βγαίνω
fail   αποτυγχάνω
fall   πέφτω
find   βρίσκω
give   δίνω
go   πηγαίνω / πάω
happen (by chance)   τυχαίνω
have   έχω
know   ξέρω
learn   μαθαίνω
leave   φεύγω
like   αρέσω
mean, signal   σημαίνω
mention, report   αναφέρω
pelt, hurl   βάλλω
proceed   βαίνω
propose   προτείνω
put   βάζω
receive, take   λαμβάνω / λαβαίνω
say   λέω
see   βλέπω
send   στέλνω
stay   μένω
submit, subject   υποβάλλω
succeed   πετυχαίνω / επιτυγχάνω
suffer, undergo   παθαίνω
take   παίρνω
take out, extract   βγάζω
want   θέλω
αναφέρω   mention, report
ανήκω   belong
αποτυγχάνω   fail
αρέσω   like
αφορώ   be about, concern, regard
βάζω   put
βαίνω   proceed
βάλλω   pelt, hurl
βγάζω   take out, extract
βγαίνω   exit, go out, get out
βλέπω   see
βρίσκω   find
δίνω   give
είμαι   be
έχω   have
θέλω   want
κάνω   do, make
λαμβάνω / λαβαίνω   receive, take
λέω   say
μαθαίνω   learn
μένω   stay
μπαίνω   enter
ξέρω   know
παθαίνω   suffer, undergo
παίρνω   take
πεθαίνω   die
πετυχαίνω / επιτυγχάνω   succeed
πέφτω   fall
πηγαίνω / πάω   go
πίνω   drink
προτείνω   propose
σημαίνω   mean, signal
στέλνω   send
τρώω / τρώγω   eat
τυχαίνω   happen (by chance)
υποβάλλω   submit, subject
φέρνω / φέρω   bring, fetch
φεύγω   leave
... to be continued ... ... stay tuned ...


be : είμαι  
Middle Voice (this verb has no active or passive voice)
Present είμαι I am / I am being      
Imperfect ήμουν I was / used to be Past ήμουν I was
Future Progressive θα είμαι I will be [continuously] Future θα είμαι I will be
Subjunctive Progressive να είμαι to be [continuously] Subjunctive να είμαι to be
Conditional Progressive θα ήμουν I would be Judgment [μάλλον] θα ήμουν I [possibly] was
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να ήμουν [I wish] I could be Assumption [πρέπει] να ήμουν I [must] have been
Imperative Progressive να είσαι! be! Imperative να είσαι! be!
      Present Perfect -- I have been
      Pluperfect -- I had been
      Future Perfect -- I will have been
      Conditional Perfect -- I would have been
Present Participle όντας being      

Note: The entire conjugation of this verb (all persons) is given here.



have : έχω  
Active Voice (this verb has no passive or middle voice)
Present έχω I have / I am having      
Imperfect είχα I had / used to have Past είχα I had
Future Progressive θα έχω I will be having Future θα έχω I will have
Subjunctive Progressive να έχω to be having Subjunctive να έχω to have
Conditional Progressive θα είχα I would have Judgment [μάλλον] θα είχα I [possibly] would have
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να είχα [I wish] I had Assumption [πρέπει] να είχα I [must] have had
Imperative Progressive έχε! να έχεις! have! [continuously] Imperative έχε! να έχεις! have!
      Present Perfect -- I have had
      Pluperfect -- I had had
      Future Perfect -- I will have had
      Conditional Perfect -- I would have had
Present Participle έχοντας having      

Note 1: There is no vanilla vs. strawberry distinction in verb έχω. As a result, the imperfect is identical with the past form: only the context can differentiate whether είχα is meant in the progressive or instantaneous sense.

Note 2: Since the forms of this verb are only two (έχω and είχα), its entire conjugation can be given here, in all three persons and two numbers, thus: present: έχω, έχεις, έχει, έχουμε, έχετε, έχουν/έχουνε; and imperfect/past: είχα, είχες, είχε, είχαμε, είχατε, είχαν/είχανε. The last ε in the 3rd person plural is called a “euphonic epsilon”, and is used to make the speech continuous, usually when the next word starts with a consonant which is not one of κ, π, τ, ξ, ψ; but it is not mandatory. (The euphonic epsilon applies not only to έχω but to all verbs in the 3rd person plural.)

Note 3: There are several compound prepositional verbs formed with έχω, some of which have been regularized. But note that although έχω itself lacks separate subjunctive and passive forms (e.g., there is no “έχομαι”), some of the compound verbs do have their own subjunctive (e.g., παράσχω) and passive (e.g., παρέχομαι). Wherever such forms exist, they are noted below (in parentheses: imperfect, subjunctive, past, passive present):
ανέχομαι (ανά + έχομαι): put up with, tolerate, bear (ανεχόμουν, ανεχθώ/ανεχτώ, ανέχθηκα/ανέχτηκα)
αντέχω (αντί + έχω): endure, stand, bear (listed as regular) (άντεχα, αντέξω, άντεξα, αντέχομαι)
απέχω (από + έχω): abstain, refrain, keep away from (απείχα, απέσχω, απείχα, --)
εξέχω (εξ + έχω): protrude, stand out; be prominent (εξείχα, εξέχω, εξείχα, --)
επέχω (επί + έχω): stand for (as a substitute for smth. else) (επείχα, επέχω, επείχα, --)
κατέχω (κατά + έχω): know (= “γνωρίζω”); occupy (κατείχα/κάτεχα, κατέχω, κατείχα, κατέχομαι)
μετέχω (μετά + έχω): participate (= “συμμετέχω”, see below) (μετείχα, μετάσχω, μετείχα, --)
παρέχω (παρά + έχω): provide (παρείχα, παράσχω, παρείχα, παρέχομαι)
περιέχω (περί + έχω): contain (περιείχα, περιέξω, περιείχα, περιέχομαι)
προέχω (προ + έχω): be of utmost importance, be prominent (προείχα, προέχω, προείχα, --)
προσέχω (προς + έχω): pay attention to, be attentive, watch, keep an eye on (listed as regular) (πρόσεχα, προσέξω, πρόσεξα, προσέχομαι)
συμμετέχω (συν + μετά + έχω) participate (συμμετείχα, συμμετάσχω, συμμετείχα, --)
συμπεριέχω (συν + περί + έχω): include (= “συμπεριλαμβάνω”) (συμπεριείχα, συμπεριέχω, συμπεριείχα, συμπεριέχομαι)
υπερέχω (υπέρ + έχω): be superior (υπερείχα, υπερέχω, υπερείχα, --)
υπέχω (υπό + έχω): be compelled, be obliged (to do smth.); stand for (= “επέχω”) (υπείχα, υπέχω, υπείχα, --)



take : παίρνω  
Active Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -παιρν- Strawberry flavor: stem -παρ-
Present παίρνω I take / am taking      
Imperfect έπαιρνα I was taking / used to take Past πήρα I took
Future Progressive θα παίρνω I will be taking Future θα πάρω I will take
Subjunctive Progressive να παίρνω to be taking Subjunctive να πάρω to take
Conditional Progressive θα έπαιρνα I would take / be taking Judgment [μάλλον] θα πήρα I [possibly] took
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να έπαιρνα [I wish] I could take Assumption [πρέπει] να πήρα I [must] have taken
Imperative Progressive παίρνε! [start] taking! Imperative πάρε! take!
      Present Perfect έχω πάρει I have taken
      Pluperfect είχα πάρει I had taken
      Future Perfect θα έχω πάρει I will have taken
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα πάρει I would have taken
Present Participle παίρνοντας taking      
Passive Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -παιρν- Chocolate flavor: stem -παρθ-
Present παίρνομαι I am [being] taken      
Imperfect παιρνόμουν I was being taken Past πάρθηκα I was taken
Future Progressive θα παίρνομαι I will be being taken Future θα παρθώ I will be taken
Subjunctive Progressive να παίρνομαι to be being taken Subjunctive να παρθώ to be taken
Conditional Progressive θα παιρνόμουν I would be taken Judgment [μάλλον] θα πάρθηκα I [possibly] am taken
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να παιρνόμουν [I wish] I could be taken Assumption [πρέπει] να πάρθηκα I [must] have been taken
Imperative Progressive να παίρνεσαι! [start] being taken! Imperative να παρθείς! be taken!
      Present Perfect έχω παρθεί I have been taken
      Pluperfect είχα παρθεί I had been taken
      Future Perfect θα έχω παρθεί I will have been taken
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα παρθεί I would have been taken
      Past Participle παρμένο, -νη, -νος taken
Middle Voice  
Present παίρνομαι I take myself (?) Imperative Middle πάρσου! take yourself!

Note: The middle voice does not make much sense for the verb above. However, πάρσου (middle imperative) is possible, though extremely rare.



say : λέω  
Active Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -λε-, -λεγ- Strawberry flavor: stem -π-
Present λέω / λέγω I say / am saying      
Imperfect έλεγα I was saying / used to say Past είπα I said
Future Progressive θα λέω / θα λέγω I will be saying Future θα πω I will say
Subjunctive Progressive να λέω / να λέγω to be saying Subjunctive να πω to say
Conditional Progressive θα έλεγα I would say / be saying Judgment [μάλλον] θα είπα I [possibly] said
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να έλεγα [I wish] I could say Assumption [πρέπει] να είπα I [must] have said
Imperative Progressive λέγε! start talking! Imperative πες! say!
      Present Perfect έχω πει I have said
      Pluperfect είχα πει I had said
      Future Perfect θα έχω πει I will have said
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα πει I would have said
Present Participle λέγοντας saying      
Middle Voice (meaning: I am called / my apellation is) Passive Voice (meaning: I am said)
Vanilla flavor: stem -λεγ- Chocolate flavor: stem -πωθ-
Present λέγομαι I am called      
Imperfect λεγόμουν I was being called Past ειπώθηκα I was said
Future Progressive θα λέγομαι I will be being called Future θα ειπωθώ I will be said
Subjunctive Progressive να λέγομαι to be being called Subjunctive να ειπωθώ to be said
Conditional Progressive θα λεγόμουν I would be called Judgment [μάλλον] θα ειπώθηκα I [possibly] am said
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να λεγόμουν [I wish] I could be called Assumption [πρέπει] να ειπώθηκα I [must] have been said
Imperative Progressive να λέγεσαι! [start] being called! Imperative να ειπωθείς! be said!
      Present Perfect έχω ειπωθεί I have been said
      Pluperfect είχα ειπωθεί I had been said
      Future Perfect θα έχω ειπωθεί I will have been said
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα ειπωθεί I would have been said
Past Participle λεγόμενο, -νη, -νος called, so-called      

Note 1: The middle voice of the verb above has a different meaning than its active and passive senses, and is formed by the vanilla stem. The passive voice occurs almost always in the 3rd person, due to the concept it describes (ειπώθηκε = “it was said”, θα ειπωθεί = “it will be said”, etc.). The passive present and imperfect of this sense are also formed by the stem -λεγ- (λέγεται = “it is said”, λεγόταν = “it was being said/used to be said”, etc.).

Note 2: There is a compound verb derived from λέω by prepending the adverb πάρα (very):
παραλέω (πάρα + λέω): exaggerate, speak by magnifying events thus making them not true (παραέλεγα, παραπώ, παραείπα)
This verb is used almost exclusively in the expression “τα παραλέω” (e.g.: “Μην τα παραλές!” = “Don’t be exaggerating [the facts]!”)
There are also a few compounds with prepositions, but note that they use the regularized strawberry stem -λεξ-:
αντιλέγω (αντί + λέγω): argue against (usu. against authority) (αντέλεγα, αντιλέξω, αντέλεξα)
διαλέγω (διά + λέγω): choose (διάλεγα, διαλέξω, διάλεξα)
εκλέγω (εκ + λέγω): elect (εξέλεγα, εκλέξω, εξέλεξα)
επιλέγω (επί + λέγω): select, cull (επέλεγα, επιλέξω, επέλεξα)
προλέγω (προ + λέγω): foretell (προέλεγα, προλέξω, προέλεξα)

Note 3: The active vanilla stem -λε- is more common (in speech & writing) than -λεγ-; thus, it is more common to hear or read λέω, rather than λέγω (and also in the other persons: λες, λέει, λέμε, λέτε, λέν/λένε, rather than λέγεις, λέγει, λέγουμε, λέγετε, λέγουν/λέγουνε). It should be noted that -λε- is a result of erosion of -λεγ-, which is the original (ancient) stem. In the imperfect and imperative, however, no erosion is observed (no *έλεα, or *λέε!). Also, none of the compounds (see note 2) uses the stem -λε-.



give : δίνω  
Active Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -διν- Strawberry flavor: stem -δωσ-
Present δίνω I give / am giving      
Imperfect έδινα I was giving / used to give Past έδωσα I gave
Future Progressive θα δίνω I will be giving Future θα δώσω I will give
Subjunctive Progressive να δίνω to be giving Subjunctive να δώσω to give
Conditional Progressive θα έδινα I would give / be giving Judgment [μάλλον] θα έδωσα I [possibly] gave
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να έδινα [I wish] I could give Assumption [πρέπει] να έδωσα I [must] have given
Imperative Progressive δίνε! [start] giving! Imperative δώσε! give!
      Present Perfect έχω δώσει I have given
      Pluperfect είχα δώσει I had given
      Future Perfect θα έχω δώσει I will have given
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα δώσει I would have given
Present Participle δίνοντας giving      
Passive Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -διν- Chocolate flavor: stem -δοθ-
Present δίνομαι I am [being] given      
Imperfect δινόμουν I was being given Past δόθηκα I was given
Future Progressive θα δίνομαι I will be being given Future θα δοθώ I will be given
Subjunctive Progressive να δίνομαι to be being given Subjunctive να δοθώ to be given
Conditional Progressive θα δινόμουν I would be given Judgment [μάλλον] θα δόθηκα I [possibly] am given
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να δινόμουν [I wish] I could be given Assumption [πρέπει] να δόθηκα I [must] have been given
Imperative Progressive να δίνεσαι! [start] being given! Imperative να δοθείς! be given!
      Present Perfect έχω δοθεί I have been given
      Pluperfect είχα δοθεί I had been given
      Future Perfect θα έχω δοθεί I will have been given
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα δοθεί I would have been given
      Past Participle δοσμένο, -νη, -νος given
Middle Voice  
Present δίνομαι I give/devote myself Imperative Middle δώσου! give/devote yourself!

Note: The older form δίδω of this verb (from ancient δίδωμι) works as a prepositional verb constructor (in parentheses: imperfect, subjunctive, past):
αποδίδω (από + δίδω): render (e.g., a translation); confer, bestow (e.g., honors to someone) (απέδιδα, αποδόσω, απέδωσα)
διαδίδω (διά + δίδω): spread rumors (διέδιδα, διαδόσω, διέδωσα)
εκδίδω (εκ + δίδω): publish; push into prostitution (esp. in middle voice: εκδίδομαι) (εξέδιδα, εκδόσω, εξέδωσα)
καταδίδω (κατά + δίδω): betray (pass on information against someone) (κατέδιδα, καταδόσω, κατέδωσα)
μεταδίδω, and μεταδίνω (μετά + δίδω/δίνω): transmit (programme through airwaves); transmit (disease), infect (μετέδιδα, μεταδόσω, μετέδωσα)
παραδίδω, and παραδίνω (παρά + δίδω/δίνω): teach lessons (in class or to student(s)); surrender (esp. in middle voice) (παρέδιδα, παραδόσω, παρέδωσα)
προδίδω, and προδίνω (προ + δίδω/δίνω): betray (a secret); be unloyal/unfaithful (in love) (προέδιδα/πρόδινα, προδόσω, πρόδωσα)
προσδίδω (προς + δίδω): add on (a feature/property to existent/known set of features) (προσέδιδα, προσδόσω, προσέδωσα)



do, make : κάνω  
Active Voice (this verb has no passive voice, but has a special meaning in middle voice)
Vanilla flavor: stem -καν- & -καμν- Strawberry flavor: stem -καν-
Present κάνω I do / am doing      
Imperfect έκανα & έκαμνα I was doing / used to do Past έκανα I did
Future Progressive θα κάνω I will be doing Future θα κάνω I will do
Subjunctive Progressive να κάνω to be doing Subjunctive να κάνω to do
Conditional Progressive θα έκανα & θα έκαμνα I would do / be doing Judgment [μάλλον] θα έκανα I [possibly] did
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να έκανα & να έκαμνα [I wish] I could do Assumption [πρέπει] να έκανα I [must] have done
Imperative Progressive κάνε! [start] doing! Imperative κάνε! do!
      Present Perfect έχω κάνει I have done
      Pluperfect είχα κάνει I had done
      Future Perfect θα έχω κάνει I will have done
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα κάνει I would have done
Present Participle κάνοντας doing      
Middle Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -καμών- Chocolate flavor: stem -καμώθ-
Present καμώνομαι I pretend / am pretending      
Imperfect καμωνόμουν I was pretending Past καμώθηκα I pretended
Future Progressive θα καμώνομαι I will be pretending Future θα καμωθώ I will pretend
Subjunctive Progressive να καμώνομαι to be pretending Subjunctive να καμωθώ to pretend
Conditional Progressive θα καμωνόμουν I would be pretending Judgment [μάλλον] θα καμώθηκα I [possibly] pretended
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να καμωνόμουν [I wish] I could be pretending Assumption [πρέπει] να καμώθηκα I [must] have pretended
Imperative Progressive να καμώνεσαι! [start] pretending! Imperative να καμωθείς! pretend!
      Present Perfect έχω καμωθεί I have pretended
      Pluperfect είχα καμωθεί I had pretended
      Future Perfect θα έχω καμωθεί I will have pretended
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα καμωθεί I would have pretended
Passive Voice
      Past Participle καμωμένο, -νη, -νος done, made

Note 1: the stem -καμν- is non-standard, used in some Greek localities only (mainly in Macedonia). However, in the imperfect it is heard occasionally among other native speakers too, because it distinguishes between the imperfect and past tenses. This verb derives from ancient κάμνω, meaning “I tire/am getting tired”, from which also nouns such as κάματος (toil), and καμώματα (peculiar/unexpected deeds/behavior) are derived.

Note 2: This verb works as a prepositional verb constructor, with one preposition only (in parentheses: imperfect, subjunctive, past):
αποκάνω or αποκάμνω (από + κάνω/κάμνω): resign due to tiredness (απόκανα/απόκαμνα, αποκάμω, απόκαμα)

Note 3: There is a compound verb derived from κάνω by prepending the adverb πάρα (very):
παρακάνω (πάρα + κάνω): overdo (παράκανα, παρακάνω, παράκανα)



want : θέλω  
Active Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -θελ- Strawberry flavor: stem -θελησ-
Present θέλω I want / am wanting      
Imperfect ήθελα I was wanting / used to want Past θέλησα I wanted
Future Progressive θα θέλω I will be wanting Future θα θελήσω I will want
Subjunctive Progressive να θέλω to be wanting Subjunctive να θελήσω to want
Conditional Progressive θα ήθελα I would want / be wanting Judgment [μάλλον] θα θέλησα I [possibly] wanted
Wish / Hope (Optative) να ήθελα [I wish] I could want Assumption [πρέπει] να θέλησα I [must] have wanted
Imperative Progressive θέλε! [start] wanting! Imperative θέλησε! want!
      Present Perfect έχω θελήσει I have wanted
      Pluperfect είχα θελήσει I had wanted
      Future Perfect θα έχω θελήσει I will have wanted
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα θελήσει I would have wanted
Present Participle θέλοντας wanting      
Passive Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -θελ- Chocolate flavor: stem -θεληθ-
Present θέλομαι I am [being] wanted      
Imperfect θελόμουν I was being wanted Past θελήθηκα I was wanted
Future Progressive θα θέλομαι I will be being wanted Future θα θεληθώ I will be wanted
Subjunctive Progressive να θέλομαι to be being wanted Subjunctive να θεληθώ to be wanted
Conditional Progressive θα θελόμουν I would be wanted Judgment [μάλλον] θα θελήθηκα I [possibly] am wanted
Wish / Hope (Optative) να θελόμουν [I wish] I could be wanted Assumption [πρέπει] να θελήθηκα I [must] have been wanted
Imperative Progressive να θέλεσαι! [start] being wanted! Imperative να θεληθείς! be wanted!
      Present Perfect έχω θεληθεί I have been wanted
      Pluperfect είχα θεληθεί I had been wanted
      Future Perfect θα έχω θεληθεί I will have been wanted
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα θεληθεί I would have been wanted
      Past Participle θελημένο, -νη, -νος wanted
Middle Voice  
Present -- (I want myself??) Imperative Middle -- (want yourself!??)

Note: The past participle of the above verb does not have the sense “wanted”, as in “a criminal is wanted” (that sense is expressed by “καταζητείται”); instead, the sense of it is “desired”.



see : βλέπω  
Active Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -βλεπ- Strawberry flavor: stem -δ-
Present βλέπω I see / am seeing      
Imperfect έβλεπα I was seeing / used to see Past είδα I saw
Future Progressive θα βλέπω I will be seeing Future θα δω I will see
Subjunctive Progressive να βλέπω to be seeing Subjunctive να δω to see
Conditional Progressive θα έβλεπα I would see / be seeing Judgment [μάλλον] θα είδα I [possibly] saw
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να έβλεπα [I wish] I could see Assumption [πρέπει] να είδα I [must] have seen
Imperative Progressive βλέπε! [start] seeing! Imperative δες! see!
      Present Perfect έχω δει I have seen
      Pluperfect είχα δει I had seen
      Future Perfect θα έχω δει I will have seen
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα δει I would have seen
Present Participle βλέποντας seeing      
Passive Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -βλεπ- Chocolate flavor: stem -δωθ-
Present βλέπομαι I am [being] seen      
Imperfect βλεπόμουν I was being seen Past ειδώθηκα I was seen
Future Progressive θα βλέπομαι I will be being seen Future θα ειδωθώ I will be seen
Subjunctive Progressive να βλέπομαι to be being seen Subjunctive να ειδωθώ to be seen
Conditional Progressive θα βλεπόμουν I would be seen Judgment [μάλλον] θα ειδώθηκα I [possibly] am seen
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να βλεπόμουν [I wish] I could be seen Assumption [πρέπει] να ειδώθηκα I [must] have been seen
Imperative Progressive να βλέπεσαι! [start] being seen! Imperative να ειδωθείς! be seen!
      Present Perfect έχω ειδωθεί I have been seen
      Pluperfect είχα ειδωθεί I had been seen
      Future Perfect θα έχω ειδωθεί I will have been seen
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα ειδωθεί I would have been seen
      Past Participle ειδωμένο, -νη, -νος seen
Middle Voice  
Present -- I see myself Imperative Middle --  

Note 1: To express the meaning of the middle voice (“I see myself”), another verb is used: κοιτάζομαι (from active κοιτάζω = I look at), the middle imperative of which is: κοιτάξου! (=look at yourself!)

Note 2: The above verb serves as a prepositional verb constructor (in parentheses: imperfect, subjunctive, past) (notice that the prepositional verbs use mostly the regular, rather than the irregular stems):
αποβλέπω (από + βλέπω): intend, aim; act in expectation of a favorable outcome (απέβλεπα, αποβλέψω, απέβλεψα)
διαβλέπω (διά + βλέπω): see through time and predict a future event by extrapolating from current events (διέβλεπα, διαβλέψω, διέβλεψα/διείδα)
επιβλέπω (επί + βλέπω): supervise (επέβλεπα, επιβλέψω, επέβλεψα)
παραβλέπω (παρά + βλέπω): fail to see by negligence (παρέβλεπα, παραβλέψω, παρέβλεψα)
προβλέπω (προ + βλέπω): predict (πρόβλεπα/προέβλεπα, προβλέψω, πρόβλεψα/προέβλεψα)
προσβλέπω (προς + βλέπω): expect/hope a favorable outcome (προσέβλεπα/πρόσβλεπα, προσβλέψω, προσέβλεψα/πρόσβλεψα)



go : πηγαίνω/πάω  
Active Voice (this verb has no passive or middle voice)
Vanilla flavor: stem -πηγαιν- Strawberry flavor: stem -πηγ-, -πα-
Present πηγαίνω / πάω I go / am going      
Imperfect πήγαινα I was going / used to go Past πήγα I went
Future Progressive θα πηγαίνω I will be going Future θα πάω I will go
Subjunctive Progressive να πηγαίνω to be going Subjunctive να πάω to go
Conditional Progressive θα πήγαινα I would go / be going Judgment [μάλλον] θα πήγα I [possibly] went
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να πήγαινα [I wish] I could go Assumption [πρέπει] να πήγα I [must] have gone
Imperative Progressive πήγαινε! [start] going! Imperative πάε! go!
      Present Perfect έχω πάει I have gone
      Pluperfect είχα πάει I had gone
      Future Perfect θα έχω πάει I will have gone
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα πάει I would have gone
Present Participle πηγαίνοντας going      

Note 1: Only the present tense has the alternative form πάω (declined as: πάω, πας, πάει, πάμε, πάτε, πάνε). None of the other vanilla forms becomes “contaminated” with the strawberry flavor.

Note 2: the present tense form “πάω να...” very rarely can denote future (“I am going to [do smth]”). One example would be, “πάει να τα καταφέρει” (“he/she is [almost] going to make it”). But such examples are hard to find. Do not use “πάω να” as a substitute for “I will” in Greek; instead, this verb almost always implies motion from one location to another.

Note 3: Although “πάε!” is given as the simple imperative form above, complying with the strawberry flavor, in practice the command “go!” is expressed almost always by progressive (vanilla) imperative “πήγαινε!”, probably because “going” is conceptualized as a progressive act.



bring, fetch : φέρνω / φέρω  
Active Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -φερν- Strawberry flavor: stem -φερ-
Present φέρνω I bring / am bringing      
Imperfect έφερνα I was bringing / used to bring Past έφερα I brought
Future Progressive θα φέρνω I will be bringing Future θα φέρω I will bring
Subjunctive Progressive να φέρνω to be bringing Subjunctive να φέρω to bring
Conditional Progressive θα έφερνα I would bring / be bringing Judgment [μάλλον] θα έφερα I [possibly] brought
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να έφερνα [I wish] I could bring Assumption [πρέπει] να έφερα I [must] have brought
Imperative Progressive φέρνε! [start] bringing! Imperative φέρε! bring!
      Present Perfect έχω φέρει I have brought
      Pluperfect είχα φέρει I had brought
      Future Perfect θα έχω φέρει I will have brought
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα φέρει I would have brought
Present Participle φέρνοντας bringing      
Passive Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -φερν- Chocolate flavor: stem -φερθ-
Present φέρνομαι I am [being] brought      
Imperfect φερνόμουν I was being brought Past φέρθηκα I was brought
Future Progressive θα φέρνομαι I will be being brought Future θα φερθώ I will be brought
Subjunctive Progressive να φέρνομαι to be being brought Subjunctive να φερθώ to be brought
Conditional Progressive θα φερνόμουν I would be brought Judgment [μάλλον] θα φέρθηκα I [possibly] am brought
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να φερνόμουν [I wish] I could be brought Assumption [πρέπει] να φέρθηκα I [must] have been brought
Imperative Progressive να φέρνεσαι! [start] being brought! Imperative να φερθείς! be brought!
      Present Perfect έχω φερθεί I have been brought
      Pluperfect είχα φερθεί I had been brought
      Future Perfect θα έχω φερθεί I will have been brought
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα φερθεί I would have been brought
      Past Participle φερμένο, -νη, -νος brought
Middle Voice  
Present φέρομαι I behave Imperative Middle φέρσου! behave!

Note 1: The verb above has an alternative form: φέρω in the active present (έφερα, active imperfect), which is less colloquial, making its vanilla stem identical to its strawberry. In this, rather learned form, φέρω usually has the sense “I bear, I have on myself”. E.g.: η ελληνική σημαία φέρει σταυρό (“the Greek flag bears a cross”), or: φέρει ουλή στο πρόσωπο (“bears a scar on the face”).

Note 2: The middle form φέρομαι is produced from this alternative form, φέρω (see note 1), and has a completely different meaning (“I behave”), which is much more common as a concept than the passive one (“I am brought”). Thus, a form such as φέρθηκα means, in most cases, “I behaved”. E.g.: μου φέρθηκε άσχημα (“he/she behaved badly to me / dealt with me badly”). However, the presence of the consonant ν in the stem usually signifies passive voice, e.g.: η φλόγα φέρνεται από την Ολυμπία (“the flame is brought from Olympia”). The meaning of “behave” can also be rendered through συμπεριφέρομαι, which is conjugated exactly as φέρομαι, prepending the prepositions συν- & περι- (resulting in συμπερι-) to all its forms.

Note 3: The form φέρω (and its middle φέρομαι) is prolific as a prepositional verb constructor (in parentheses: imperfect, subjunctive, past):
αναφέρω (ανά + φέρω): mention, report (to be encountered) (ανέφερα/ανάφερα, αναφέρω, ανέφερα/ανάφερα)
αναφέρομαι (ανά + φέρομαι): refer (αναφερόμουν, αναφερθώ, αναφέρθηκα)
αποφέρω (από + φέρω): yield, produce (απέφερα, αποφέρω, απέφερα)
διαφέρω (διά + φέρω): differ (διέφερα, διαφέρω, διέφερα)
εισφέρω (εις + φέρω), and more commonly, συνεισφέρω (συν + εις + φέρω): contribute (συνεισέφερα, συνεισφέρω, συνεισέφερα)
εκφέρω (εκ + φέρω): utter (εξέφερα, εκφέρω, εξέφερα)
επιφέρω (επί + φέρω): cause, bring about (επέφερα, επιφέρω, επέφερα)
καταφέρω (κατά + φέρω): deal (a strike), hit (κατέφερα, καταφέρω, κατάφερα)
καταφέρνω (κατά + φέρνω): manage to do smth. (κατάφερνα, καταφέρω, κατάφερα)
μεταφέρω (μετά + φέρω): transfer, move; carry (μετάφερνα/μετέφερα, μεταφέρω, μετάφερα/μετέφερα)
παραφέρομαι (παρά + φέρομαι): lose one’s temper, go mad/berserk (παραφερόμουν, παραφερθώ, παραφέρθηκα)
περιφέρω (περί + φέρω): carry around (περιέφερνα, περιφέρω, περιέφερα)
περιφέρομαι (περί + φέρομαι): wander (περιφερόμουν, περιφερθώ, περιφέρθηκα)
προφέρω (προ + φέρω): pronounce (πρόφερα/προέφερα, προφέρω, πρόφερα/προέφερα)
προσφέρω (προς + φέρω): offer, proffer; give for sale (πρόσφερα/προσέφερα, προσφέρω, πρόσφερα/προσέφερα)
συμφέρω (συν + φέρω), usu. in 3rd person συμφέρει: be to one’s interests, be advantageous, suit one’s purpose (συνέφερα, συμφέρω, συνέφερα)
συμπεριφέρομαι (συν + περί + φέρομαι): behave (συμπεριφερόμουν, συμπεριφερθώ, συμπεριφέρθηκα)
υποφέρω (υπό + φέρω): suffer; put up with (υπόφερα/υπέφερα, υποφέρω, υπόφερα/υπέφερα)

Etymology Note (based on note 3): It is not a coincidence that the above verbs refer, differ, transfer, offer, and suffer all have a common ending; they are all derivatives of Latin ferre, which is akin to Greek φέρω.



be about, concern, regard : αφορώ  
Active Voice (this verb has no passive or middle voice)
Present αφορώ I regard / I am regarding      
Imperfect αφορούσα I was regarding / used to regard Past -- I regarded
Future Progressive θα αφορώ I will be regarding Future -- I will regard
Subjunctive Progressive να αφορώ to be regarding Subjunctive -- to regard
Conditional Progressive θα αφορούσα I would regard Judgment -- I [possibly] regarded
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να αφορούσα [I wish] I could regard Assumption -- I [must] have regarded
Imperative Progressive να αφοράς! regard! [continuously] Imperative -- regard!
      Present Perfect -- I have regarded
      Pluperfect -- I had regarded
      Future Perfect -- I will have regarded
      Conditional Perfect -- I would have regarded
Present Participle αφορώντας regarding      

Note 1: This verb lacks not only passive and middle voice, but also the entire strawberry flavor. It is found almost always in the 3rd person: αφορά (present) and αφορούσε (imperfect), as in “ο νέος ιός αφορά τους υπολογιστές εκείνους που...” (“the new virus is about [affects] those computers that...”), or: “η είδηση αφορούσε όλους όσοι...” (“the news concerned [was about] all those who...”). Or, consider these examples in the plural: “τα νέα αφορούν τις χώρες της Ευρώπης” (“the news concern [are about] the countries of Europe”), or: “δεν αφορούσαν εμένα” (“they were not about me”).

Note 2: There are some very common stock phrases using this verb that explain its high frequency of occurrence: 1. “όσον αφορά τον/την/το (or στον/στην/στο - see note 3)...”, meaning “regarding the...”, and 2. “δεν σε αφορά!”, meaning “it’s none of your business!” (lit.: “it does not concern you!”)

Note 3: There has been some discussion regarding whether τον/την/το or στον/στην/στο should follow αφορά. Grammarians have insisted that the correct syntax is αφορά στον/στην/στο, and that people who use τον/την/το do so erroneously. This suggestion for correction has been around since the early 80’s. Nonetheless, a search on the internet reveals that people overwhelmingly use the τον/την/το forms of the article (83%), rather than στον/στην/στο (17%), following this verb.



mean; signal : σημαίνω  
Active Voice (this verb has no passive or middle voice)
Vanilla flavor: stem -σημαιν- Strawberry flavor: stem -σημαν-
Present σημαίνω I mean / signal      
Imperfect σήμαινα I meant / used to mean / was signaling Past σήμανα I signaled
Future Progressive θα σημαίνω I will be meaning/signaling Future θα σημάνω I will signal
Subjunctive Progressive να σημαίνω to be meaning/signaling Subjunctive να σημάνω to signal
Conditional Progressive θα σήμαινα I would mean/signal/be signaling Judgment [μάλλον] θα σήμανα I [possibly] signaled
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να σήμαινα [I wish] I could mean/signal Assumption [πρέπει] να σήμανα I [must] have signaled
Imperative Progressive σήμαινε! [start] signaling! Imperative σήμανε! signal!
      Present Perfect έχω σημάνει I have signaled
      Pluperfect είχα σημάνει I had signaled
      Future Perfect θα έχω σημάνει I will have signaled
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα σημάνει I would have signaled
Present Participle σημαίνοντας meaning/signaling      

Note 1: The strawberry flavor of this verb has almost always the meaning “signal”, not “mean”, because the latter cannot be conceived of in an instantaneous sense in Greek: if something σημαίνει (“means”), it “means” continuously. In contrast, in English the form “I am meaning” sounds rather peculiar, if not plain wrong.

Note 2: This verb works as a prepositional verb constructor, with one preposition only (in parentheses: imperfect, subjunctive, past):
επισημαίνω (επί + σημαίνω): point out, single out (επισήμαινα, επισημάνω, επισήμανα)



receive, take : λαμβάνω / λαβαίνω  
Active Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -λαμβαν-, -λαβαιν- Strawberry flavor: stem -λαβ-
Present λαμβάνω / λαβαίνω I receive / am receiving      
Imperfect ελάμβανα / λάβαινα I was receiving / used to receive Past έλαβα I received
Future Progressive θα λαμβάνω/λαβαίνω I will be receiving Future θα λάβω I will receive
Subjunctive Progressive να λαμβάνω/λαβαίνω to be receiving Subjunctive να λάβω to receive
Conditional Progressive θα ελάμβανα/λάβαινα I would receive / be receiving Judgment [μάλλον] θα έλαβα I [possibly] received
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να ελάμβανα/λάβαινα [I wish] I could receive Assumption [πρέπει] να έλαβα I [must] have received
Imperative Progressive λάβαινε! [start] receiving! Imperative λάβε! receive!
      Present Perfect έχω λάβει I have received
      Pluperfect είχα λάβει I had received
      Future Perfect θα έχω λάβει I will have received
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα λάβει I would have received
Present Participle λαμβάνοντας receiving      
Passive Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -λαμβαν- Chocolate flavor: stem -ληφθ-
Present λαμβάνομαι I am [being] taken      
Imperfect λαμβανόμουν I was being taken Past λήφθηκα I was taken
Future Progressive θα λαμβάνομαι I will be being taken Future θα ληφθώ I will be taken
Subjunctive Progressive να λαμβάνομαι to be being taken Subjunctive να ληφθώ to be taken
Conditional Progressive θα λαμβανόμουν I would be taken Judgment [μάλλον] θα λήφθηκα I [possibly] am taken
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να λαμβανόμουν [I wish] I could be taken Assumption [πρέπει] να λήφθηκα I [must] have been taken
Imperative Progressive να λαμβάνεσαι! [start] being taken! Imperative να ληφθείς! be taken!
      Present Perfect έχω ληφθεί I have been taken
      Pluperfect είχα ληφθεί I had been taken
      Future Perfect θα έχω ληφθεί I will have been taken
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα ληφθεί I would have been taken
      Past Participle ειλημένο, -νη, -νος taken
Middle Voice  
Present -- (“εκλαμβάνομαι”) I am misunderstood Imperative Middle --  

Note: The above verb (in its forms λαμβάνω, λαβαίνω, λαμβάνομαι) serves as a prepositional verb constructor (in parentheses: imperfect, subjunctive, past):
αναλαμβάνω (ανά + λαμβάνω): undertake; recuperate (αναλάμβανα, αναλάβω, ανέλαβα)
αντιλαμβάνομαι (αντί + λαμβάνομαι): perceive; comprehend (αντιλαμβανόμουν, αντιληφθώ, αντιλήφθηκα)
απολαμβάνω (από + λαμβάνω): enjoy (απολάμβανα, απολαύσω, απόλαυσα) (notice the irregular-irregular subjunctive & past!)
εκλαμβάνω (εκ + λαμβάνω): misunderstand, take for smth. else (εξελάμβανα, εκλάβω, εξέλαβα)
επαναλαμβάνω (επί + ανά + λαμβάνω): repeat (επαναλάμβανα, επαναλάβω, επανέλαβα)
καταλαβαίνω (κατά + λαβαίνω): understand (to be encountered later) (καταλάβαινα, καταλάβω, κατάλαβα)
καταλαμβάνω (κατά + λαμβάνω): conquer, occupy (e.g., nation, position) (καταλάμβανα, καταλάβω, κατάλαβα/κατέλαβα)
καταλαμβάνομαι (κατά + λαμβάνομαι): seized by some feeling/attitude (καταλαμβανόμουν, καταληφθώ, καταλήφθηκα)
μεταλαβαίνω, and μεταλαμβάνω (μετά + λαμβάνω/λαβαίνω): receive Holy Communion (μεταλάβαινα/μεταλάμβανα, μεταλάβω, μετάλαβα/μετέλαβα)
παραλαμβάνω (παρά + λαμβάνω): receive (a delivery) (παραλάμβανα, παραλάβω, παρέλαβα)
περιλαμβάνω (περί + λαμβάνω): include (περιλάμβανα/περιελάμβανα, περιλάβω, περιέλαβα)
προλαβαίνω, and προλαμβάνω (προ + λαβαίνω/λαμβάνω): prevent (προλάβαινα, προλάβω, πρόλαβα)
προσλαμβάνω (προς + λαμβάνω): hire (to a company); take on (προσλάμβανα/προσελάμβανα, προσλάβω, προσέλαβα)
συλλαμβάνω (συν + λαμβάνω), arrest; conceive (child, idea) (συλλάμβανα/συνελάμβανα, συλλάβω, συνέλαβα)
συμπεριλαμβάνω (συν + περί + λαμβάνω): include (συμπεριλάμβανα/συμπεριελάμβανα, συμπεριλάβω, συμπεριέλαβα)



find : βρίσκω  
Active Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -βρισκ- Strawberry flavor: stem -βρηκ-, -βρ-
Present βρίσκω I find / am finding      
Imperfect έβρισκα I was finding / used to find Past βρήκα I found
Future Progressive θα βρίσκω I will be finding Future θα βρω I will find
Subjunctive Progressive να βρίσκω to be finding Subjunctive να βρω to find
Conditional Progressive θα έβρισκα I would find / be finding Judgment [μάλλον] θα βρήκα I [possibly] found
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να έβρισκα [I wish] I could find Assumption [πρέπει] να βρήκα I [must] have found
Imperative Progressive βρίσκε! [start] finding! Imperative βρες! find!
      Present Perfect έχω βρει I have found
      Pluperfect είχα βρει I had found
      Future Perfect θα έχω βρει I will have found
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα βρει I would have found
Present Participle βρίσκοντας finding      
Passive Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -βρισκ- Chocolate flavor: stem -βρεθ-
Present βρίσκομαι I am [being] found      
Imperfect βρισκόμουν I was being found Past βρέθηκα I was found
Future Progressive θα βρίσκομαι I will be being found Future θα βρεθώ I will be found
Subjunctive Progressive να βρίσκομαι to be being found Subjunctive να βρεθώ to be found
Conditional Progressive θα βρισκόμουν I would be found Judgment [μάλλον] θα βρέθηκα I [possibly] am found
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να βρισκόμουν [I wish] I could be found Assumption [πρέπει] να βρέθηκα I [must] have been found
Imperative Progressive να βρίσκεσαι! [start] being found! Imperative να βρεθείς! be found!
      Present Perfect έχω βρεθεί I have been found
      Pluperfect είχα βρεθεί I had been found
      Future Perfect θα έχω βρεθεί I will have been found
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα βρεθεί I would have been found
      Past Participle -- found
Middle Voice  
Present βρίσκομαι I am located Imperative Middle -- be located!

Note: There is no past participle for the above verb (“βρεμένο, -η, -ος” means “wet”, not “found”). To say that something “is found” the 3rd person sg. of present tense is used: βρίσκεται. Also, there is no middle imperative; to say “be located!” the 2nd person sg. of progressive subjunctive is used: να βρίσκεσαι!



know : ξέρω  
Active Voice (this verb has no passive or middle voice)
Present ξέρω I know      
Imperfect ήξερα I used to know Past ήξερα I knew
Future Progressive θα ξέρω I will be knowing Future θα ξέρω I will know
Subjunctive Progressive να ξέρω to be knowing Subjunctive να ξέρω to know
Conditional Progressive θα ήξερα I would know Judgment [μάλλον] θα ήξερα I [possibly] knew
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να ήξερα [I wish] I knew Assumption [πρέπει] να ήξερα I [must] have known
Imperative Progressive ξέρε! know! [continuously] Imperative ξέρε! know!
      Present Perfect (“έχω γνωρίσει”) I have known
      Pluperfect (“είχα γνωρίσει”) I had known
      Future Perfect (“θα έχω γνωρίσει”) I will have known
      Conditional Perfect (“θα είχα γνωρίσει”) I would have known
Present Participle ξέροντας knowing      

Note: This is one more verb with identical vanilla and strawberry flavors. Its perfect senses are formed through another verb: γνωρίζω, which also means “I know”, but in a slightly different sense: “be aware/cognizant of”, “have intimate knowledge of” (akin to Spanish conocer; while ξέρω is akin to Sp. saber).



mention, report : αναφέρω  
Active Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem ανα + -φερ- Strawberry flavor: stem ανα + -φερ-
Present αναφέρω I mention / am mentioning      
Imperfect ανέφερα I was mentioning / used to mention Past ανέφερα I mentioned
Future Progressive θα αναφέρω I will be mentioning Future θα αναφέρω I will mention
Subjunctive Progressive να αναφέρω to be mentioning Subjunctive να αναφέρω to mention
Conditional Progressive θα ανέφερα I would mention / be mentioning Judgment [μάλλον] θα ανέφερα I [possibly] mentioned
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να ανέφερα [I wish] I could mention Assumption [πρέπει] να ανέφερα I [must] have mentioned
Imperative Progressive ανάφερε! [start] mentioning! Imperative ανάφερε! mention!
      Present Perfect έχω αναφέρει I have mentioned
      Pluperfect είχα αναφέρει I had mentioned
      Future Perfect θα έχω αναφέρει I will have mentioned
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα αναφέρει I would have mentioned
Present Participle αναφέροντας mentioning      
Passive Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem ανα + -φερ- Chocolate flavor: stem ανα + -φερθ-
Present αναφέρομαι I am [being] mentioned      
Imperfect αναφερόμουν I was being mentioned Past αναφέρθηκα I was mentioned
Future Progressive θα αναφέρομαι I will be being mentioned Future θα αναφερθώ I will be mentioned
Subjunctive Progressive να αναφέρομαι to be being mentioned Subjunctive να αναφερθώ to be mentioned
Conditional Progressive θα αναφερόμουν I would be mentioned Judgment [μάλλον] θα αναφέρθηκα I [possibly] am mentioned
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να αναφερόμουν [I wish] I could be mentioned Assumption [πρέπει] να αναφέρθηκα I [must] have been mentioned
Imperative Progressive να αναφέρεσαι! [start] being mentioned! Imperative να αναφερθείς! be mentioned!
      Present Perfect έχω αναφερθεί I have been mentioned
      Pluperfect είχα αναφερθεί I had been mentioned
      Future Perfect θα έχω αναφερθεί I will have been mentioned
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα αναφερθεί I would have been mentioned
      Past Participle αναφερμένο, -νη, -νος mentioned
Middle Voice  
Present αναφέρομαι I refer Imperative Middle αναφέρσου! refer!

Note 1: The irregularity of the verb above is that its vanilla and strawberry stems are identical. Also note, the middle voice form has a different sense, “I refer to”, which is active in English. This sense is much more common than the passive “I am mentioned”. For example, the phrase “ο Ηρόδοτος αναφέρεται στους ελληνο-περσικούς πολέμους” means “Herodotus refers to [writes about] the Greco-Persian wars” (not that “Herodotus is mentioned in the Greco-Persian wars”).

Note 2: This verb is actually a compound one, made by the preposition ανά + the verb φέρω. It is listed explicitly here because of its high frequency of occurrence. Otherwise, all other compound (prepositional) verb forms of φέρω are listed here.



put : βάζω  
Active Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -βαζ- Strawberry flavor: stem -βαλ-
Present βάζω I put / am putting      
Imperfect έβαζα I was putting / used to put Past έβαλα I put
Future Progressive θα βάζω I will be putting Future θα βάλω I will put
Subjunctive Progressive να βάζω to be putting Subjunctive να βάλω to put
Conditional Progressive θα έβαζα I would put / be putting Judgment [μάλλον] θα έβαλα I [possibly] put
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να έβαζα [I wish] I could put Assumption [πρέπει] να έβαλα I [must] have put
Imperative Progressive βάζε! [start] putting! Imperative βάλε! put!
      Present Perfect έχω βάλει I have put
      Pluperfect είχα βάλει I had put
      Future Perfect θα έχω βάλει I will have put
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα βάλει I would have put
Present Participle βάζοντας putting      
Passive Voice: this verb has no passive voice sense; though βάζομαι is possible, in practice the verb τοποθετούμαι (active τοποθετώ) is used to denote the idea “I am put by someone”. However, the chocolate flavor -βαλθ- is used in a middle voice sense (see below).
Middle Voice
Vanilla flavor Chocolate flavor: stem -βαλθ-
Present -- I am [being] put      
Imperfect -- I was being put Past βάλθηκα να... I am/was set to... (determined)
Future Progressive -- I will be being put Future θα βαλθώ να... I will be set to...
Subjunctive Progressive -- to be being put Subjunctive να βαλθώ να... to be set to...
Conditional Progressive -- I would be put Judgment [μάλλον] θα βάλθηκα να... I [possibly] am set to...
Wish / Hope (Optative) -- [I wish] I could be put Assumption [πρέπει] να βάλθηκα να... I [must] have been set to...
Imperative Progressive -- [start] being put! Imperative βάλσου να...! be set to...!
      Present Perfect έχω βαλθεί να... I have been set to...
      Pluperfect είχα βαλθεί να... I had been set to...
      Future Perfect θα έχω βαλθεί να... I will have been set to...
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα βαλθεί να... I would have been set to...
      Past Participle βαλμένο, -νη, -νος placed, set to...

Note: The middle sense βάλθηκα is almost always followed by a verb in the subjunctive, hence the particle να... is included in the table above. Similarly in English, when the verb “set” is used in the same sense, it is almost always followed by an infinitive (to...), corresponding to the Greek subjunctive. Example: βάλθηκε να σπάσει όλα τα ρεκόρ (“s/he was set to break all records”).



stay, live at : μένω  
Active Voice (this verb has no passive or middle voice)
Vanilla flavor: stem -μεν- Strawberry flavor: stem -μειν-
Present μένω I stay / am staying      
Imperfect έμενα I was staying / used to stay Past έμεινα I stayed
Future Progressive θα μένω I will be staying Future θα μείνω I will stay
Subjunctive Progressive να μένω to be staying Subjunctive να μείνω to stay
Conditional Progressive θα έμενα I would stay / be staying Judgment [μάλλον] θα έμεινα I [possibly] stayed
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να έμενα [I wish] I could stay Assumption [πρέπει] να έμεινα I [must] have stayed
Imperative Progressive μένε! start staying! Imperative μείνε! stay!
      Present Perfect έχω μείνει I have stayed
      Pluperfect είχα μείνει I had stayed
      Future Perfect θα έχω μείνει I will have stayed
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα μείνει I would have stayed
Present Participle μένοντας staying      

Note: The above verb serves as a prepositional verb constructor (in parentheses: imperfect, subjunctive, past):
αναμένω (ανά + μένω): expect (ανέμενα, αναμείνω, ανέμεινα/ανάμεινα)
απομένω (από + μένω): be left over (απέμενα, απομείνω, απέμεινα)
διαμένω (διά + μένω): live (at a place) (διέμενα, διαμείνω, διέμεινα)
επιμένω (επί + μένω): insist, persist (επέμενα, επιμείνω, επέμεινα)
παραμένω (παρά + μένω): remain (παρέμενα, παραμείνω, παρέμεινα)
περιμένω (περί + μένω): wait; expect (περίμενα, περιμείνω, περίμεινα (but note: the past tense is not used))
προσμένω (προς + μένω): anticipate, look forward to (πρόσμενα/προσέμενα, προσμείνω, πρόσμεινα/προσέμεινα (but note: the past tense is not used))
υπομένω (υπό + μένω): endure; put up with (υπόμενα/υπέμενα, υπομείνω, υπόμεινα/υπέμεινα)



take out/off, extract : βγάζω  
Active Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -βγαζ- Strawberry flavor: stem -βγαλ-
Present βγάζω I take out / am taking out      
Imperfect έβγαζα I was taking out / used to take out Past έβγαλα I took out
Future Progressive θα βγάζω I will be taking out Future θα βγάλω I will take out
Subjunctive Progressive να βγάζω to be taking out Subjunctive να βγάλω to take out
Conditional Progressive θα έβγαζα I would take out / be taking out Judgment [μάλλον] θα έβγαλα I [possibly] took out
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να έβγαζα [I wish] I could take out Assumption [πρέπει] να έβγαλα I [must] have taken out
Imperative Progressive βγάζε! [start] taking out! Imperative βγάλε! take out!
      Present Perfect έχω βγάλει I have taken out
      Pluperfect είχα βγάλει I had taken out
      Future Perfect θα έχω βγάλει I will have taken out
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα βγάλει I would have taken out
Present Participle βγάζοντας taking out      
Passive and Middle Voice: though βγάζομαι is possible, in practice no passive or middle form other than the past participle of this verb is used.
      Past Participle βγαλμένο, -νη, -νος taken out, extracted



enter : μπαίνω  
Active Voice (this verb has no passive or middle voice)
Vanilla flavor: stem -μπαιν- Strawberry flavor: stem -μπ-
Present μπαίνω I enter / am entering      
Imperfect έμπαινα I was entering / used to enter Past μπήκα I entered
Future Progressive θα μπαίνω I will be entering Future θα μπω I will enter
Subjunctive Progressive να μπαίνω to be entering Subjunctive να μπω to enter
Conditional Progressive θα έμπαινα I would enter / be entering Judgment [μάλλον] θα μπήκα I [possibly] entered
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να έμπαινα [I wish] I could enter Assumption [πρέπει] να μπήκα I [must] have entered
Imperative Progressive μπαίνε! έμπαινε! start entering! penetrate! Imperative μπες! enter!
      Present Perfect έχω μπει I have entered
      Pluperfect είχα μπει I had entered
      Future Perfect θα έχω μπει I will have entered
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα μπει I would have entered
Present Participle μπαίνοντας entering      

Note: The above verb is an eroded form of the compound prepositional verb εμβαίνω (εν + βαίνω). The verb βαίνω, although obsolete, is still used occasionally, meaning “proceed”, and is responsible for a number of other compound prepositional verbs (in parentheses: imperfect, subjunctive, past):
ανεβαίνω (ανά + εν + βαίνω): ascend, get on (ανέβαινα, ανεβώ, ανέβηκα)
αντιβαίνω (αντί + βαίνω): clash, go against (αντέβαινα, αντιβώ, αντέβην)
αποβαίνω (από + βαίνω): result (απέβαινα, αποβώ, απέβην)
επιβαίνω (επί + βαίνω): get on (a vehicle or an animal for transportation) (επέβαινα, επιβώ, επέβην)
επεμβαίνω (επί + εν + βαίνω): intervene, meddle, encroach (επέμβαινα, επέμβω, επέμβην/επέμβηκα)
κατεβαίνω (κατά + εν + βαίνω): descend, get down (κατέβαινα, κατεβώ, κατέβηκα)
μεταβαίνω (μετά + βαίνω): be transported (μετέβαινα, μεταβώ, μετέβην)
παραβαίνω (παρά + βαίνω): violate, infringe (παρέβαινα, παραβώ, παρέβην)
παρεμβαίνω (παρά + εν + βαίνω): interfere, intrude (παρέμβαινα, παρέμβω, παρέμβην/παρέμβηκα)
προβαίνω (προ + βαίνω): proceed, carry out a behavior (a demonstration, statement, etc.) (προέβαινα, προβώ, προέβην)
συμβαίνω (συν + βαίνω), happen (συνέβαινα, συμβώ, συνέβην)
υπερβαίνω (υπέρ + βαίνω): exceed (υπερέβαινα, υπερβώ, υπερέβην)
Of the above verbs, those that are very common, such as ανεβαίνω and κατεβαίνω, have “regularized” their endings in the past (-ηκα, -ηκες, -ηκε, -ήκαμε, -ήκατε, -ηκαν), while the rest retain their ancient past endings (-ην, ης, -η, -ημεν, -ητε, -ησαν). Such differences mean that the regularized forms are used in everyday speech, while the ancient/obsolete ones imply a more “learned” language use.



exit, go out, get out : βγαίνω  
Active Voice (this verb has no passive or middle voice)
Vanilla flavor: stem -βγαιν- Strawberry flavor: stem -βγ-
Present βγαίνω I exit / am exiting      
Imperfect έβγαινα I was exiting / used to exit Past βγήκα I exited
Future Progressive θα βγαίνω I will be exiting Future θα βγω I will exit
Subjunctive Progressive να βγαίνω to be exiting Subjunctive να βγω to exit
Conditional Progressive θα έβγαινα I would exit / be exiting Judgment [μάλλον] θα βγήκα I [possibly] exited
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να έβγαινα [I wish] I could exit Assumption [πρέπει] να βγήκα I [must] have exited
Imperative Progressive βγαίνε! start exiting! Imperative βγες! exit!
      Present Perfect έχω βγει I have exited
      Pluperfect είχα βγει I had exited
      Future Perfect θα έχω βγει I will have exited
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα βγει I would have exited
Present Participle βγαίνοντας exiting      



fall : πέφτω  
Active Voice (this verb has no passive or middle voice)
Vanilla flavor: stem -πεφτ- Strawberry flavor: stem -πεσ-
Present πέφτω I fall / am falling      
Imperfect έπεφτα I was falling / used to fall Past έπεσα I fell
Future Progressive θα πέφτω I will be falling Future θα πέσω I will fall
Subjunctive Progressive να πέφτω to be falling Subjunctive να πέσω to fall
Conditional Progressive θα έπεφτα I would fall / be falling Judgment [μάλλον] θα έπεσα I [possibly] fell
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να έπεφτα [I wish] I could fall Assumption [πρέπει] να έπεσα I [must] have fallen
Imperative Progressive πέφτε! [start] falling! Imperative πέσε! fall!
      Present Perfect έχω πέσει I have fallen
      Pluperfect είχα πέσει I had fallen
      Future Perfect θα έχω πέσει I will have fallen
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα πέσει I would have fallen
Present Participle πέφτοντας falling      

Note 1: An older (ancient) form of this verb is πίπτω (imperfect: έπιπτα), which can still be encountered occasionally in appropriate contexts and expressions.

Note 2: A few prepositional compound verbs are derived from πέφτω and πίπτω (in parentheses: imperfect, subjunctive, past):
εκπίπτω (εκ + πίπτω): (for a price): be discounted from a tax; (for a person): be exempted from duties (εξέπιπτα, εκπέσω, εξέπεσα)
(κατά + πέφτω): fall down (possibly hitting smth. and causing destruction), collapse (κατάπεφτα, καταπέσω, κατάπεσα)
(κατά + πίπτω): be discounted, subtracted from a price/sum; be annulled/nullified (κατέπιπτα, καταπέσω, κατέπεσα)
(παρά + πέφτω): (for an object): be misplaced; (for a person, organization, nation, etc.) lose prior high status (παράπεφτα, παραπέσω, παράπεσα)



propose : προτείνω  
Active Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem προ + -τειν- Strawberry flavor: stem προ + -τειν-
Present προτείνω I propose / am proposing      
Imperfect πρότεινα I was proposing / used to propose Past πρότεινα I proposed
Future Progressive θα προτείνω I will be proposing Future θα προτείνω I will propose
Subjunctive Progressive να προτείνω to be proposing Subjunctive να προτείνω to propose
Conditional Progressive θα πρότεινα I would propose / be proposing Judgment [μάλλον] θα πρότεινα I [possibly] proposed
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να πρότεινα [I wish] I could propose Assumption [πρέπει] να πρότεινα I [must] have proposed
Imperative Progressive πρότεινε! [start] proposing! Imperative πρότεινε! propose!
      Present Perfect έχω προτείνει I have proposed
      Pluperfect είχα προτείνει I had proposed
      Future Perfect θα έχω προτείνει I will have proposed
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα προτείνει I would have proposed
Present Participle προτείνοντας proposing      
Passive Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem προ + -τειν- Chocolate flavor: stem προ + -ταθ-
Present προτείνομαι I am [being] proposed      
Imperfect προτεινόμουν I was being proposed Past προτάθηκα I was proposed
Future Progressive θα προτείνομαι I will be being proposed Future θα προταθώ I will be proposed
Subjunctive Progressive να προτείνομαι to be being proposed Subjunctive να προταθώ to be proposed
Conditional Progressive θα προτεινόμουν I would be proposed Judgment [μάλλον] θα προτάθηκα I [possibly] am proposed
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να προτεινόμουν [I wish] I could be proposed Assumption [πρέπει] να προτάθηκα I [must] have been proposed
Imperative Progressive να προτείνεσαι! [start] being proposed! Imperative να προταθείς! be proposed!
      Present Perfect έχω προταθεί I have been proposed
      Pluperfect είχα προταθεί I had been proposed
      Future Perfect θα έχω προταθεί I will have been proposed
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα προταθεί I would have been proposed
      Past Participle -- proposed
Middle Voice  
Present (“αυτοπροτείνομαι”) I propose myself Imperative Middle προτάσου! be proposed!

Note 1: The missing past participle is not a missing concept in Greek. To say, for example, “the proposed law”, the progressive present participle is used: “ο προτεινόμενος νόμος”. In Greek conceptualization, the act of proposing cannot be considered finished unless a decision is taken; hence the past participle is conceptually inappropriate for this verb.

Note 2: The above is actually a compound verb, the most common prepositional version of τείνω, which means “tend” (as in, “inclined to do smth.”). Τείνω forms several more prepositional verbs (in parentheses: imperfect, subjunctive, past):
ανατείνω (ανά + τείνω): raise against, hold up against (ανέτεινα, ανατείνω, ανέτεινα)
αντιτείνω (αντί + τείνω): utter (or write) a counter-argument (αντέτεινα, αντιτείνω, αντέτεινα)
αποτείνω (από + τείνω): direct and offer smth. to sb. (απότεινα, αποτείνω, απότεινα)
αποτείνομαι (από + τείνομαι): address (αποτεινόμουν, αποταθώ, αποτάθηκα)
διατείνω (διά + τείνω): dilate (διέτεινα, διατείνω, διέτεινα)
διατείνομαι (από + τείνομαι): claim, maintain (διατεινόμουν, --, --) (the forms διαταθώ and διατάθηκα have the passive sense of διατείνω)
εκτείνομαι (εκ + τείνομαι): extend (passively, e.g., as with the fixed borders of a nation) (εξετεινόμουν/εκτεινόμουν, εκταθώ, εκτάθηκα)
εντείνω (εν + τείνω): intensify, increase a trend (ενέτεινα, εντείνω, ενέτεινα)
επεκτείνω (επί + εκ + τείνω): extend (actively, e,g., as with actively enlarging sovereignty), expand (επεξέτεινα, επικτείνω, επεξέτεινα)
επιτείνω (επί + τείνω): aggravate; keep or increase a trend in time (επέτεινα, επιτείνω, επέτεινα)
κατατείνω (κατά + τείνω): have a tendency to (κατέτεινα, κατατείνω, κατέτεινα)
παρατείνω (παρά + τείνω): prolong (παρέτεινα, παρατείνω, παρέτεινα)
προτείνω (προ + τείνω): propose (given above)
συντείνω (συν + τείνω), conduce, contribute (συνέτεινα, συντείνω, συνέτεινα)



belong : ανήκω  
Active Voice (this verb has no passive or middle voice)
Vanilla flavor: stem -ανηκ- Strawberry flavor: --
Present ανήκω I belong      
Imperfect ανήκα I used to belong Past -- I belonged
Future Progressive θα ανήκω I will belong Future -- I will belong
Subjunctive Progressive να ανήκω to belong Subjunctive -- to belong
Conditional Progressive θα ανήκα I would belong Judgment -- I [possibly] belonged
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να ανήκα [I wish] I could belong Assumption -- I [must] have belonged
Imperative Progressive να ανήκεις! [start] belong! Imperative -- belong!
      Present Perfect -- I have belonged
      Pluperfect -- I had belonged
      Future Perfect -- I will have belonged
      Conditional Perfect -- I would have belonged
Present Participle ανήκοντας belonging      

Note: The missing strawberry flavor is explained conceptually by the fact that this verb can be understood only in a progressive sense, not in an instantaneous one: if something “belongs”, it usually belongs with an implied duration, not instantly. This is true conceptually, so it is independent of the language we speak. Greek reflects this observation by lacking a strawberry flavor for this verb. English reflects it in a different way: the verb “to belong” conceptually still has a progressive aspect, which it “usurps” from its grammatically progressive form; thus, to say “I am belonging” sounds distinctly peculiar and unusual (though it is grammatically possible).



send : στέλνω / στέλλω  
Active Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -στελν- Strawberry flavor: stem -στειλ-
Present στέλνω / στέλλω I send / am sending      
Imperfect έστελνα I was sending / used to send Past έστειλα I sent
Future Progressive θα στέλνω I will be sending Future θα στείλω I will send
Subjunctive Progressive να στέλνω to be sending Subjunctive να στείλω to send
Conditional Progressive θα έστελνα I would send / be sending Judgment [μάλλον] θα έστειλα I [possibly] sent
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να έστελνα [I wish] I could send Assumption [πρέπει] να έστειλα I [must] have sent
Imperative Progressive στέλνε! [start] sending! Imperative στείλε! send!
      Present Perfect έχω στείλει I have sent
      Pluperfect είχα στείλει I had sent
      Future Perfect θα έχω στείλει I will have sent
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα στείλει I would have sent
Present Participle στέλνοντας sending      
Passive Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -στελν- Chocolate flavor: stem -σταλθ-
Present στέλνομαι I am [being] sent      
Imperfect στελνόμουν I was being sent Past στάλθηκα I was sent
Future Progressive θα στέλνομαι I will be being sent Future θα σταλώ I will be sent
Subjunctive Progressive να στέλνομαι to be being sent Subjunctive να σταλώ to be sent
Conditional Progressive θα στελνόμουν I would be sent Judgment [μάλλον] θα στάλθηκα I [possibly] am sent
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να στελνόμουν [I wish] I could be sent Assumption [πρέπει] να στάλθηκα I [must] have been sent
Imperative Progressive να στέλνεσαι! [start] being sent! Imperative να σταλείς! be sent!
      Present Perfect έχω σταλεί I have been sent
      Pluperfect είχα σταλεί I had been sent
      Future Perfect θα έχω σταλεί I will have been sent
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα σταλεί I would have been sent
      Past Participle σταλμένο, -νη, -νος sent
Middle Voice  
Present στέλνομαι I send myself Imperative Middle στάλσου! send yourself!

Note 1: The middle imperative “στάλσου” can be considered rare to objectionable (some native speakers might claim it is never uttered).

Note 2: This verb derives from the older form στέλλω (passive στέλλομαι), which is still used today in appropriate formal contexts. This older form is responsible for a number of compound prepositional verbs (in parentheses: imperfect, subjunctive, past):
αναστέλλω (ανά + στέλλω): suspend, postpone to an indefinite time (ανέστελλα, αναστείλω, ανέστειλα)
αντιδιαστέλλω (αντί + διά + στέλλω): compare by contrasting (= “παραβάλλω”) (αντιδιέστελλα, αντιδιαστείλω, αντιδιέστειλα)
αποστέλλω (από + στέλλω): send (= “στέλλω”), dispatch (απέστελλα, αποστείλω, απέστειλα)
διαστέλλω (διά + στέλλω): dilate, inflate, distend, expand (διέστελλα, διαστείλω, διέστειλα)
καταστέλλω (κατά + στέλλω): quell, repress, suppress (κατέστελλα, καταστείλω, κατέστειλα)
περιστέλλω (περί + στέλλω): limit, curb (περιέστελλα, περιστείλω, περιέστειλα)
υποστέλλω (υπό + στέλλω): lower (usu.: a flag) (υπέστελλα, υποστείλω, υπέστειλα)



leave, go away : φεύγω  
Active Voice (this verb has no passive or middle voice)
Vanilla flavor: stem -φευγ- Strawberry flavor: stem -φυγ-
Present φεύγω I leave / am leaving      
Imperfect έφευγα I was leaving / used to leave Past έφυγα I left
Future Progressive θα φεύγω I will be leaving Future θα φύγω I will leave
Subjunctive Progressive να φεύγω to be leaving Subjunctive να φύγω to leave
Conditional Progressive θα έφευγα I would leave / be leaving Judgment [μάλλον] θα έφυγα I [possibly] left
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να έφευγα [I wish] I could leave Assumption [πρέπει] να έφυγα I [must] have left
Imperative Progressive φεύγε! [start] leaving! Imperative φύγε! / φεύγα! leave!
      Present Perfect έχω φύγει I have left
      Pluperfect είχα φύγει I had left
      Future Perfect θα έχω φύγει I will have left
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα φύγει I would have left
Present Participle φεύγοντας leaving      

Note 1: The idiomatic imperative form φεύγα (notice its vanilla flavor) is rather slang. The “normal” form is φύγε.

Note 2: A few compound prepositional verbs are formed with φεύγω (in parentheses: imperfect, subjunctive, past):
αποφεύγω (από + φεύγω): avoid, shun (απέφευγα/απόφευγα, αποφύγω, απέφυγα/απόφυγα)
διαφεύγω (διά + φεύγω): escape, get away; leak (usu.: profit, money) (διέφευγα, διαφύγω, διέφυγα)
εκφεύγω (εκ + φεύγω): be out of the jurisdiction/scope of (εξέφευγα, εκφύγω, εξέφυγα)
καταφεύγω (κατά + φεύγω): resort, take refuge (κατέφευγα, καταφύγω, κατέφυγα)
προσφεύγω (προς + φεύγω): recourse, turn to (usu.: to justice) (προσέφευγα, προσφύγω, προσέφυγα)

Etymology note: The English word fugitive has its root in the above Greek word.



eat : τρώω  
Active Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -τρωγ- Strawberry flavor: stem -φαγ-
Present τρώω / τρώγω I eat / am eating      
Imperfect έτρωγα I was eating / used to eat Past έφαγα I ate
Future Progressive θα τρώω/τρώγω I will be eating Future θα φάω/φάγω I will eat
Subjunctive Progressive να τρώω/τρώγω to be eating Subjunctive να φάω/φάγω to eat
Conditional Progressive θα έτρωγα I would eat / be eating Judgment [μάλλον] θα έφαγα I [possibly] ate
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να έτρωγα [I wish] I could eat Assumption [πρέπει] να έφαγα I [must] have eaten
Imperative Progressive τρώγε! [start] eating! Imperative φάε! / φάγε! eat!
      Present Perfect έχω φάει I have eaten
      Pluperfect είχα φάει I had eaten
      Future Perfect θα έχω φάει I will have eaten
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα φάει I would have eaten
Present Participle τρώγοντας eating      
Passive Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -τρωγ- Chocolate flavor: stem -φαγωθ-
Present τρώγομαι I am [being] eaten      
Imperfect τρωγόμουν I was being eaten Past φαγώθηκα I was eaten
Future Progressive θα τρώγομαι I will be being eaten Future θα φαγωθώ I will be eaten
Subjunctive Progressive να τρώγομαι to be being eaten Subjunctive να φαγωθώ to be eaten
Conditional Progressive θα τρωγόμουν I would be eaten Judgment [μάλλον] θα φαγώθηκα I [possibly] am eaten
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να τρωγόμουν [I wish] I could be eaten Assumption [πρέπει] να φαγώθηκα I [must] have been eaten
Imperative Progressive να τρώγεσαι! [start] being eaten! Imperative να φαγωθείς! be eaten!
      Present Perfect έχω φαγωθεί I have been eaten
      Pluperfect είχα φαγωθεί I had been eaten
      Future Perfect θα έχω φαγωθεί I will have been eaten
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα φαγωθεί I would have been eaten
      Past Participle φαγωμένο, -νη, -νος eaten
Middle Voice  
Present τρώγομαι I quarrel Imperative Middle φαγώσου! be eaten!

Note 1: The original form of this verb in the present is τρώγω, but erosion has turned it into τρώω, to the extent that the form τρώγω is seldom ever used (and is probably dialectal). Erosion is applied to all persons in the present tense; thus, instead of the (antiquated) τρώγω, τρώγεις, τρώγει, τρώγουμε, τρώγετε, τρώγουν (or τρώγουνε), we now have: τρώω, τρως, τρώει, τρώμε, τρώτε, τρων (or τρώνε). However, no erosion occurs in the imperfect and imperative of the active voice, nor in the entire passive/middle voice (naturally: only the most common forms can be eroded).

Note 2: The peculiar middle sense of τρώγομαι (“I quarrel”) is rather slang, and should be avoided in formal, or slightly formal contexts (the more straightforward “μαλώνω” is recommended). Also note the expression “τρώγομαι με τα ρούχα μου”, (lit.: “I quarrel with my own clothes”) which means (in liberal translation), “I am so anxious to quarrel with sb. that, finding no suitable target, I start destroying/complaining about things that belong to me, or quarreling with people of my own circle/side/party.”

Note 3: A single prepositional compound verb is derived from τρώγω by prepending the preposition κατά:
κατατρώγω (κατά + τρώγω): eat up (e.g., from the inside), eat completely (κατάτρωγα/κατέτρωγα, καταφάω, κατάφαγα/κατέφαγα)



die : πεθαίνω  
Active Voice (this verb has no passive or middle voice)
Vanilla flavor: stem -πεθαιν- Strawberry flavor: stem -πεθαν-
Present πεθαίνω I die / am dying      
Imperfect πέθαινα I was dying / used to die Past πέθανα I died
Future Progressive θα πεθαίνω I will be dying Future θα πεθάνω I will die
Subjunctive Progressive να πεθαίνω to be dying Subjunctive να πεθάνω to die
Conditional Progressive θα πέθαινα I would die / be dying Judgment [μάλλον] θα πέθανα I [possibly] died
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να πέθαινα [I wish] I could die Assumption [πρέπει] να πέθανα I [must] have died
Imperative Progressive πέθαινε! [start] dying! Imperative πέθανε! die!
      Present Perfect έχω πεθάνει I have died
      Pluperfect είχα πεθάνει I had died
      Future Perfect θα έχω πεθάνει I will have died
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα πεθάνει I would have died
Present Participle πεθαίνοντας dying      



learn : μαθαίνω  
Active Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -μαθαιν- Strawberry flavor: stem -μαθ-
Present μαθαίνω I learn / am learning      
Imperfect μάθαινα I was learning / used to learn Past έμαθα I learned
Future Progressive θα μαθαίνω I will be learning Future θα μάθω I will learn
Subjunctive Progressive να μαθαίνω to be learning Subjunctive να μάθω to learn
Conditional Progressive θα μάθαινα I would learn / be learning Judgment [μάλλον] θα έμαθα I [possibly] learned
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να μάθαινα [I wish] I could learn Assumption [πρέπει] να έμαθα I [must] have learned
Imperative Progressive μαθαινε! [start] learning! Imperative μάθε! learn!
      Present Perfect έχω μάθει I have learned
      Pluperfect είχα μάθει I had learned
      Future Perfect θα έχω μάθει I will have learned
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα μάθει I would have learned
Present Participle μαθαίνοντας learning      
Passive Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -μαθαιν- Chocolate flavor: stem -μαθευτ-
Present μαθαίνομαι I am [being] learned      
Imperfect μαθαινόμουν I was being learned Past μαθεύτηκα I was learned
Future Progressive θα μαθαίνομαι I will be being learned Future θα μαθευτώ I will be learned
Subjunctive Progressive να μαθαίνομαι to be being learned Subjunctive να μαθευτώ to be learned
Conditional Progressive θα μαθαινόμουν I would be learned Judgment [μάλλον] θα μαθεύτηκα I [possibly] am learned
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να μαθαινόμουν [I wish] I could be learned Assumption [πρέπει] να μαθεύτηκα I [must] have been learned
Imperative Progressive να μαθαίνεσαι! [start] being learned! Imperative να μαθευτείς! be learned!
      Present Perfect έχω μαθευτεί I have been learned
      Pluperfect είχα μαθευτεί I had been learned
      Future Perfect θα έχω μαθευτεί I will have been learned
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα μαθευτεί I would have been learned
Middle Voice  
Present -- (I learn myself?) Past Participle (“γνώθι σαυτόν”) “learn thyself”



submit; subject : υποβάλλω  
Active Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem υπο + -βαλλ- Strawberry flavor: stem υπο + -βαλ-
Present υποβάλλω I submit / am submitting      
Imperfect υπέβαλλα I was submitting / used to submit Past υπέβαλα I submitted
Future Progressive θα υποβάλλω I will be submitting Future θα υποβάλω I will submit
Subjunctive Progressive να υποβάλλω to be submitting Subjunctive να υποβάλω to submit
Conditional Progressive θα υπέβαλλα I would submit / be submitting Judgment [μάλλον] θα υπέβαλα I [possibly] submitted
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να υπέβαλλα [I wish] I could submit Assumption [πρέπει] να υπέβαλα I [must] have submitted
Imperative Progressive υπόβαλλε! [start] submitting! Imperative υπόβαλε! submit!
      Present Perfect έχω υποβάλει I have submitted
      Pluperfect είχα υποβάλει I had submitted
      Future Perfect θα έχω υποβάλει I will have submitted
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα υποβάλει I would have submitted
Present Participle υποβάλλοντας submitting      
Passive Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem υπο + -βαλλ- Chocolate flavor: stem υπο + -βληθ-
Present υποβάλλομαι I am [being] submitted      
Imperfect υποβαλλόμουν I was being submitted Past υποβλήθηκα I was submitted
Future Progressive θα υποβάλλομαι I will be being submitted Future θα υποβληθώ I will be submitted
Subjunctive Progressive να υποβάλλομαι to be being submitted Subjunctive να υποβληθώ to be submitted
Conditional Progressive θα υποβαλλόμουν I would be submitted Judgment [μάλλον] θα υποβλήθηκα I [possibly] am submitted
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να υποβαλλόμουν [I wish] I could be submitted Assumption [πρέπει] να υποβλήθηκα I [must] have been submitted
Imperative Progressive να υποβάλλεσαι! [start] being submitted! Imperative να υποβληθείς! be submitted!
      Present Perfect έχω υποβληθεί I have been submitted
      Pluperfect είχα υποβληθεί I had been submitted
      Future Perfect θα έχω υποβληθεί I will have been submitted
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα υποβληθεί I would have been submitted
      Past Participle υποβληθέν, -θείσα, -θείς submitted
Middle Voice  
Present υποβάλλομαι I am subjected Imperative Middle υποβλήσου! subject yourself!

Note: υποβάλλω is a compound prepositional verb, one of the most common constructs of the base verb βάλλω, which means “throw, pelt, hurl” (έβαλλα, βάλω, έβαλα, passive: βάλλομαι, βαλλόμουν, βληθώ, βλήθηκα). (Note the identity of forms βάλω and έβαλα with the corresponding ones of the much more common βάζω = “I put”.) Βάλλω is now rather obsolete and used only in formal contexts (πετάω/πετώ is the regular verb meaning “throw, pelt, hurl”), but what is important about βάλλω is that it forms compounds with every preposition that there is, including the rare αμφί. If verbs were chemical elements, then βάλλω would be the fluorine of verbs! Its compounds are listed below (in parentheses: imperfect, subjunctive, past):
αμφιβάλλω (αμφί + βάλλω): doubt (αμφέβαλλα, αμφιβάλω, αμφέβαλα)
αναβάλλω (ανά + βάλλω): postpone, put off (ανέβαλλα, αναβάλω, ανέβαλα)
αντιβάλλω (αντί + βάλλω): act against, oppose; compare against (αντέβαλλα, αντιβάλω, αντέβαλα)
αποβάλλω (από + βάλλω): expel; miscarry, abort; shed (απέβαλλα/απόβαλλα, αποβάλω, απέβαλα/απόβαλα)
διαβάλλω (διά + βάλλω): slander, defame, calumniate (διέβαλλα, διαβάλω, διέβαλα)
εισβάλλω (εις + βάλλω): invade (εισέβαλλα, εισβάλω, εισέβαλα)
εκβάλλω (εκ + βάλλω): utter (εξέβαλλα, εκβάλω, εξέβαλα)
εμβάλλω (εν + βάλλω): introduce; put in (ενέβαλλα, εμβάλω, ενέβαλα)
επιβάλλω (επί + βάλλω): impose (επέβαλλα, επιβάλω, επέβαλα)
επιβάλλομαι (επί + βάλλομαι): prevail and hence dominate, win out (επιβαλλόμουν, επιβληθώ, επιβλήθηκα)
καταβάλλω (κατά + βάλλω): overpower, trounce; weaken; toil, make an effort; remunerate, pay (formal) (κατέβαλλα, καταβάλω, κατέβαλα)
μεταβάλλω (μετά + βάλλω): alter, change, transform (μετάβαλλα/μετέβαλλα, μεταβάλω, μετάβαλα/μετέβαλα)
παραβάλλω (παρά + βάλλω): compare, collate (παρέβαλλα/παράβαλλα, παραβάλω, παρέβαλα/παράβαλα)
περιβάλλω (περί + βάλλω): surround, encircle (περιέβαλλα, περιβάλω, περιέβαλα)
προβάλλω (προ + βάλλω): put forward, advance, raise; project (a film); gradually appear (πρόβαλλα/προέβαλλα, προβάλω, πρόβαλα/προέβαλα)
προσβάλλω (προς + βάλλω): insult, offend; impair, harm (πρόσβαλλα/προσέβαλλα, προσβάλω, πρόσβαλα/προσέβαλα)
συμβάλλω (συν + βάλλω): contribute (συνέβαλλα, συμβάλω, συνέβαλα)
συμβάλλομαι (συν + βάλλομαι): agree by contract (συμβαλλόμουν, συμβληθώ, συμβλήθηκα)
υπερβάλλω (υπέρ + βάλλω): exaggerate; surpass (υπερέβαλλα, υπερβάλω, υπερέβαλα)
υποβάλλω (υπό + βάλλω): submit; subject (see table above) (υπέβαλλα/υπόβαλλα, υποβάλω, υπέβαλα/υπόβαλα)



drink : πίνω  
Active Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -πιν- Strawberry flavor: stem -πι-
Present πίνω I drink / am drinking      
Imperfect έπινα I was drinking / used to drink Past ήπια I drank
Future Progressive θα πίνω I will be drinking Future θα πιω I will drink
Subjunctive Progressive να πίνω to be drinking Subjunctive να πιω to drink
Conditional Progressive θα έπινα I would drink / be drinking Judgment [μάλλον] θα ήπια I [possibly] drank
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να έπινα [I wish] I could drink Assumption [πρέπει] να ήπια I [must] have drunk
Imperative Progressive πίνε! [start] drinking! Imperative πιες! drink!
      Present Perfect έχω πιει I have drunk
      Pluperfect είχα πιει I had drunk
      Future Perfect θα έχω πιει I will have drunk
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα πιει I would have drunk
Present Participle πίνοντας drinking      
Passive Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -πιν- Chocolate flavor: stem -πιωθ-
Present πίνομαι I am [being] drunk [by sb.]      
Imperfect πινόμουν I was being drunk Past πιώθηκα I was drunk [by sb.]
Future Progressive θα πίνομαι I will be being drunk Future θα πιωθώ I will be drunk
Subjunctive Progressive να πίνομαι to be being drunk Subjunctive να πιωθώ to be drunk
Conditional Progressive θα πινόμουν I would be drunk Judgment [μάλλον] θα πιώθηκα I [possibly] am drunk
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να πινόμουν [I wish] I could be drunk Assumption [πρέπει] να πιώθηκα I [must] have been drunk
Imperative Progressive να πίνεσαι! [start] being drunk! Imperative να πιωθείς! be drunk!
      Present Perfect έχω πιωθεί I have been drunk
      Pluperfect είχα πιωθεί I had been drunk
      Future Perfect θα έχω πιωθεί I will have been drunk
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα πιωθεί I would have been drunk
Middle Voice  
Present πίνομαι I am drinkable Past Participle πιωμένο, -νη, -νος be drunk (inebriated)

Note 1: Forms such as πιω, πιες, πιει, (under strawberry flavor) are all monosyllabic, hence not accented in writing. The ι serves merely to palatalize the initial π in such forms.

Note 2: The past participle has an almost exclusively middle voice sense in this verb, meaning “I am under the influence of alcohol”. However, all the other forms of πίνομαι do not have connotations with alcohol. For example, πίνομαι means exclusively “I am drunk by somebody / I am drinkable” (hence, for conceptual reasons, it appears mostly in the 3rd person: πίνεται), as in: το νερό πίνεται (“the water is drinkable”). The sense “I am drunk (under the influence of alcohol)” is given by: “είμαι πιωμένος” or, slightly more formally: “είμαι μεθυσμένος”.

Note 3: There is a compound verb derived from πίνω by prepending the adverb πάρα (very):
παραπίνω (πάρα + πίνω): drink too much alcohol, to the point of becoming, or nearly becoming, drunk (παραέπινα, παραπιώ, παραήπια)

Note 4: There is a single compound prepositional verb formed by πίνω:
καταπίνω (κατά + πίνω): swallow (κατάπινα, καταπιώ, κατάπια)



suffer, undergo : παθαίνω  
Active Voice (this verb has no passive or middle voice)
Vanilla flavor: stem -παθαιν- Strawberry flavor: stem -παθ-
Present παθαίνω I suffer / am suffering      
Imperfect πάθαινα I was suffering / used to suffer Past έπαθα I suffered
Future Progressive θα παθαίνω I will be suffering Future θα πάθω I will suffer
Subjunctive Progressive να παθαίνω to be suffering Subjunctive να πάθω to suffer
Conditional Progressive θα πάθαινα I would suffer / be suffering Judgment [μάλλον] θα έπαθα I [possibly] suffered
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να πάθαινα [I wish] I could suffer Assumption [πρέπει] να έπαθα I [must] have suffered
Imperative Progressive πάθαινε! [start] suffering! Imperative πάθε! suffer!
      Present Perfect έχω πάθει I have suffered
      Pluperfect είχα πάθει I had suffered
      Future Perfect θα έχω πάθει I will have suffered
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα πάθει I would have suffered
Present Participle παθαίνοντας suffering      

Note: There is no English verb corresponding exactly to the meaning of παθαίνω. “Suffer” is more frequently translated as υποφέρω, whereas “undergo” corresponds more accurately to υφίσταμαι. Παθαίνω is like “suffer” but in the sense of “suffer damage” (=“παθαίνω ζημιά”) or “sustain loss”; not as is “suffer and feel pain (physical or psychological) from my suffering” (= “υποφέρω”).



happen (by chance) : τυχαίνω  
Active Voice (this verb has no passive or middle voice)
Vanilla flavor: stem -τυχαιν- Strawberry flavor: stem -τυχ-
Present τυχαίνω I happen / am happening      
Imperfect τύχαινα I was happening / used to happen Past έτυχα I happened
Future Progressive θα τυχαίνω I will be happening Future θα τύχω I will happen
Subjunctive Progressive να τυχαίνω to be happening Subjunctive να τύχω to happen
Conditional Progressive θα τύχαινα I would happen / be happening Judgment [μάλλον] θα έτυχα I [possibly] happened
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να τύχαινα [I wish] I could happen Assumption [πρέπει] να έτυχα I [must] have happened
Imperative Progressive -- -- Imperative -- --
      Present Perfect έχω τύχει I have happened
      Pluperfect είχα τύχει I had happened
      Future Perfect θα έχω τύχει I will have happened
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα τύχει I would have happened
Present Participle τυχαίνοντας happening      

Note: τυχαίνω, and its more ancient/obsolete version τυγχάνω, form a few compound prepositional verbs, listed below (in parentheses: imperfect, subjunctive, past):
αποτυχαίνω (από + τυχαίνω): fail (απoτύχαινα, αποτύχω, απέτυχα)
αποτυγχάνω (από + τυγχάνω): fail (αποτύγχανα, αποτύχω, απέτυχα)
πετυχαίνω (επι + τυχαίνω): succeed (πετύχαινα, πετύχω, πέτυχα)
επιτυγχάνω (επί + τυγχάνω): succeed (επιτύγχανα, επιτύχω, επέτυχα)



like : αρέσω  
Active Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -αρεσ-, -αρεζ- Strawberry flavor: stem -αρεσ-
Present αρέσω I like / am liking      
Imperfect άρεζα I was liking / used to like Past άρεσα I liked
Future Progressive θα αρέσω I will be liking Future θα αρέσω I will like
Subjunctive Progressive να αρέσω to be liking Subjunctive να αρέσω to like
Conditional Progressive θα άρεζα I would like / be liking Judgment [μάλλον] θα άρεσα I [possibly] liked
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να άρεζα [I wish] I could like Assumption [πρέπει] να άρεσα I [must] have liked
Imperative Progressive άρεζε! [start] liking! Imperative άρεσε! like!
      Present Perfect έχω αρέσει I have liked
      Pluperfect είχα αρέσει I had liked
      Future Perfect θα έχω αρέσει I will have liked
      Conditional Perfect θα είχα αρέσει I would have liked
Present Participle -- --      
Middle Voice
Vanilla flavor: stem -αρέσκ- Chocolate flavor: --
Present αρέσκομαι I prefer for myself / am preferring for myself      
Imperfect αρεσκόμουν I was preferring for myself Past -- --
Future Progressive θα αρέσκομαι I will be preferring for myself Future -- --
Subjunctive Progressive να αρέσκομαι to be preferring for myself Subjunctive -- --
Conditional Progressive θα αρεσκόμουν I would be preferring for myself Judgment -- --
Wish / Hope (Optative) [ήθελα] να αρεσκόμουν [I wish] I could be preferring for myself Assumption -- --
Imperative Progressive να αρέσκεσαι! [start] preferring for yourself! Imperative -- --
      Present Perfect -- --
      Pluperfect -- --
      Future Perfect -- --
      Conditional Perfect -- --
Passive Voice
  -- I am liked      

Note: Do not use θα άρεζα (conditional progressive, active voice) as the translation for I would like, as in “I would like a coffee”; for this expression, use “θα ήθελα” (e.g., “θα ήθελα έναν καφέ”). Θα άρεζα has the meaning I would like as in: “I would like this person if only he were more cheerful.”



...To be continued... Stay tuned...


1. The list of 1000 most common Greek words (or 1000 most common verbs, etc.), can be obtained from the pages of the Hellenic National Corpus™. To obtain the list do the following counter-intuitive actions: go to the link just given, and do not select the “English Interface” at the bottom, because its search function does not work (as of the last update of this page). On the Greek interface, there are four buttons at the top, just under the main title. The 3rd button reads: Αναζήτηση. Click on it. You are brought to a page with various options. Ignore all of them and look at the bottom, where the next-to-last link reads: Στατιστικά στοιχεία. This will bring you to this page, where you’ll see four links plus some edit-boxes and buttons. The first two links give the 100 and 1000 most common words (each form of a word included), and the next two links give the 100 and 1000 most common entries (where each entry summarizes all forms of a word). Disclaimer: if the above interface is now different, please forgive the obsoleteness of this description!

As an alternative method to finding statistics of usage, simple GoogleTM searches were also employed. This method gives results that are probably more faithful to the spoken language, because the majority of Greek web pages are written in colloquial Greek, rather than in literary, academic, or technical language.

2. Thanks to Greg Brush for several errata and suggestions he made available to me after reading this page.

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Page last updated on 04/12/2007 by Harry Foundalis